Economy of Permanence

 Features and Relevance  

Observing Recommendations and activities J. C. Kumarappa duly proposed and implemented under the Constructive works planned by Mahatma Gandhi

Chandan Sukumar Sengupta

Abstract

Being a learner of Technology, Peace, Nonviolence, Sustainable Development and Gandhian Studies, I have placed my observations to correlate the dream of the Gandhian Economist and its relevance with the present day initiatives. This observation focuses on different aspects of the thinking of Dr. J. C. Kumarappa and also it correlates the present day situation that we have in India. Kumarappa proposed a dynamic as well as people friendly model of development and worked upon reviving village industries through series of planned activities. His aspirations remained unattended even after attaining independence. The effort of Kumarappa was principally focused on reviving rural industries. It was an effort that aspired with higher pursuit to link people with trade and industries. Role of government and Public Enterprises were also made clear through series of Policy interventions. This presentation even examines the relevance of the plan of Kumarappa in relation to the present day context.

Fundamental Issues

            During one of the visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Patna[1] the fellow accountant duly appointed by leaders refused to sanction the conveyance and other logistic support spent on Mahatma because of the lack of adequate allocation of fund for the same purpose. Gandhi summoned the person and wanted to know the reason of such denial of affording the expenses. The accountant explained the reason of the refusal. The reasons furnished by the fellow accountant was accepted by Mahatma. People managed expenses of the visit of Mahatma from other sources. The fellow accountant was Joseph Cornelius Chelladurai, popularly known as Kumarappa[2]. Sincerity, attention to duty, absolute accountability, affinity toward truth and nonviolence, people friendly approach, deep understanding of the audit and accounts are some other aspects that describe the leader in particular. Mahatma Gandhi maintained his faith in Kumarappa and Kumarappa also understood the dream of Mahatma properly. Just after meeting Mahatma Kumarappa changed his stand of putting himself at the service of the motherland alongside the direct consultation of Mahatma.

            The period, when both Gandhi and Kumarappa met, was of a turmoil in the field of economic and social conditions of fellow Indians. Villages remained off the stream of the National Economy. For every minute articles India started relying upon products and services regulated by the British. Gandhi was in a fix to link up common Indians with simplest possible trades and commerce. In that situation Kumarappa took the central attention of Mahatma and agreed upon all such jobs that Gandhi wanted him to take up. In present day context India is passing through a series of crisis in the field of agriculture and other sectors of economy.[3] Now question arises, was the planned intervention[4] of the planning commission partially addressed issues of rural industrialization and agriculture? What was the stand of public enterprises in extending their support to rural enterprises? What are the hurdles yet prevailing in the context of national economy?

The Life Sketch

            The life of Kumarappa duly exhibits his affinity toward exploring an immediate solution to the economic instability and unrest of India. Kumarappa was born on 4 January 1892 in Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu and baptized Joseph Chelladurai Cornelius. Cornelius was the English name taken up by his paternal grandfather, an Anglican clergyman, and which was also used by his father, who was an officer in the Public Works Department of the Government of Madras. His mother, Mrs. Esther Rajanayagam, who had a strong influence on him, hailed from the well known family of poet Vedanayagam Sastriar. She was a devout Christian woman who tried to practice the Christian tenet of “love thy neighbour” all her life and motivated her children to do the same.

Joseph qualified himself as an incorporated accountant in London and started practicing there in 1918-19 in a British firm. In 1927 Kumarappa moved toward USA, where his eldest brother resided. There at USA he first took a degree in Business Administration from Syracuse University and then joined Columbia University to study Public Finance. During this time he started receiving invitations from various organisations to give lectures on India and the economic condition of fellow Indians.

            The words of his mother compelled Kumarappa to come back India. After reaching the native place he has decided to offer his services as an auditor and accountant. In 1929 Joseph Chelladurai moved to Bombay and restarted his auditing and accounting services. By that time his works on Public Finance gained adequate enrichment because of his direct experiences. Because of this reason Kumarappa wanted to search a suitable publisher for making his views and aspirations public. His works sufficiently exhibited his criticism and observations on British exploitation of India through its taxation policy. The kind of writing was on the same lines of thoughts which other nationalist leaders were also maintaining. Some of such writers like Dadabhoi Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, K.T. Shah and many British critics expressed their view point regarding reasons of exploitations that made the life of common Indians miserable.

            During this time Kumarappa met Mahatma Gandhi and just after the first meeting he started working on the principles and postulates of Mahatma. Request of Mahatma to join Gujarat Vidyapeeth was gladly accepted by Kumarappa. Students and teachers of Gujarat Vidyapeeth conducted a survey of Matar Taluka in Kheda district of Gujarat. While he was engaged in this survey Gandhiji started on the Dandi March as the first stage of his Salt Satyagraha. As both he and his secretary, Mahadev Desai, got arrested, the Navajivan Trust, which carried out all publishing activities on behalf of Gandhi, invited Joseph to edit Young India in their absence. This became his regular responsibility whenever Gandhi and Desai were not available.

            Kumarappa was sentenced to jail for the first time for his seditious articles in Young India. He had arguments with Gandhi regarding what he felt was his overemphasis on Khadi to the neglect of the need of resuscitating the other village industries for rural reconstruction. Tagore too had criticised Gandhi on this count. For this strong conviction he was chosen by Gandhi to organise the All-India Village Industries Association in 1934.

            Gandhiji started the Gram Udyog Sangh with the aim of reviving and revitalising other village-based industries apart from spinning and weaving as an important component of the whole programme of village rejuvenation, which he wanted to be the cornerstone of the Indian economy and polity. In this aim, Kumarappa declared his concern clearly. A monthly journal called Gram Udyog Patrika (GUP)[5] was started in English and Hindi to expound the economics of village industries and to publish reports of ongoing work and research. GUP has many reports by Kumarappa on village industries from the various parts of India, like Kashmir and Punjab that he visited.

The A.I.V.I.A. held several meetings in this connection and Kumarappa was called to survey conditions in some of the provinces and draw up reports with concrete suggestions for the development of village industries there. Important and voluminous reports were written under his supervision on the village industries of the Central Provinces and of the N.W.F.P. in 1939 and 1940. The interim government was formed prior to transfer of power, Dr. Kumarappa was offered a ministership by Sardar Patel, but he refused. Earlier too he had refused membership of the Congress Working Committee because he felt that his work in the A.I.V.I.A. was more important and that he could serve the masses better through this work. He would prefer to try and influence the government in the desired direction from outside rather than become part of it.

            Kumarappa agreed with Gandhi about the need for merging all the autonomous organisations he had created for constructive work under one Board of Management. These were in the various spheres of spinning and weaving, other village industries, agriculture, education, Harijan and Adivasi service, health, women’s uplift and cow protection. These organisations had come up at different periods of time and there was a lack of much needed co-ordination in their functioning. Respective leaders started regulating various bodies as per their diverged aspirations. The kind of divergence was not the exact expectation of Mahatma and Kumarappa.

Economy linked to Ecology

            It is evident from the postulates of Kumarappa in Economy of Permanence[6] that violation of the ecological and environmental rules for any rapid process of industrialisation was not supported by his masterly plan. Through his comparative study he has correlated different economic practices with that of equally active environmental components (Table 1: Economic activities of human society). Kumarappa praised the contribution of the economy of enterprise and that of Congregation (alternatively Gregation).

Table 1: Economic activities evident in human society

[a correlation of Ecology and Economy proposed by J C Kumarappa ]

Types of Economy Entities as an example
Parasitic Robbery and Malpractices of different kind often imply serious harm to the system. Without contributing anything if people imply their claim upon the resources.
Predatory Antisocial elements imply claim upon the society by force and even create harm to people for gaining something without contributing anything toward the prosperity of the society. It often brings a halt to the progressive nature of the society.
Enterprise Farmers and Artisans get involved in the productive works for ensuring a collective benefit for the entire society.
Congregation[7] Development Organisations as well as Charitable Trust working for the prosperity of the entire society.
Service Parental Care[8] of a mother and Welfare Services meant for nourishing a child as well as promoting the growth of a student. A kind of service line up that never expect anything in return.

            All nature is dovetailed together in a common cause. When this interconnection works out harmoniously and violence does not break the chain, we have an economy of permanence. The postulates and concept of the economy of permanence developed through linking up skills of people, availability of resources and immediate need of the context in particular. The basis of this framework was as follows:

  1. Non-exploitation / nonviolent approach- in employing and utilizing human and natural resources.
  2. Conservation and enhancement of natural resources and utilization of excess and renewable resources for daily need of the community. Multiplicity of production should not go for stock piling of any products. It should address aspirations of users.
  3. Creation and enhancement of human resources and human creativity through skill acquisition, enhancement of core competencies and availing non-exploitative and wholesome assignments to fellow community members.
  4. Practicing social security in terms of Trusteeship in sharing of the resources, skills and possessions (political, economic and knowledge) of one with all.
  5. Creation of value based economy – development of social service based economy which lead toward attainment of a permanent growth having adequate stability.
  6. Internalising common goals, values and principles based on universal humanity principles for the promotion of proper use of technologies, skills and resources. The said practice cannot allow greed based activities. It can sufficiently fulfill the need of the fellow community members. Addressing access to resources for the fulfillment of basic need of an individual will be another prerequisite of the participation of human being in exercising community based economic practices.
  7. Mass cooperative and collaborative economic activities for creating common and sharable having a sense of equality, justice and human dignity. Any production should be accomplished by mass for fulfilling the community need. The production should not be of mass production which requires formation of alternative marketing strategies for launching the same with an affinity of gaining a lump sum.
  8. Any economic activity should not violate the fundamental human values and even, it should not take any support of false claims merely for promotional purposes.
  9. Any production or service by any means should not put people in trouble. Moreover, it should not claim much value simply in the name of profit.

            His affinity toward Service Economy duly reflected through his own postulates. According to him, farmers and artisans are the main contributors in keeping the entire system a sustainable one. Some of the service line ups like medication, transport are meant for providing logistic support to the activities of farmers and artisans and claim a living from the yield. But activities of middle men, robbers and oppressors are to be suppressed. For better understanding of the entire economic practices of a country or a state Kumarappa categorised all economic activities with identical environmental agents of similar nature and conduct.

Planned Perspectives

            Healthy and well-nourished society remain so for a longer time with progressive growth only when it remains protected. We cannot say stop to any antisocial elements or oppressors, but we may ensure the self-protective as well as social-protective measures to make the entire society immune to the evil forces. It will be a kind of guiding force upon which people living in a close proximity may work out a comprehensive plan for considering joint as well as collective actions.  System immunity[9] is also guided by the active nature of the law enforcement units of a society. A healthy system will in turn ensure the non-corruptive nature of the law enforcement units. Efficient law enforcement unit and awakened social localized groups may jointly imply adequate immunity to the adjoining society. Planning should not focus any abrupt practices that increases adequate burden upon the national productivity which resides entirely upon the mass involved in productivity.

 

 

The Realm of Promotion

            Efforts of development organisations will be focused adequately toward promoting the enterprise of human society for ensuring progressive growth of farmers and artisans. Promotional activities may be of different kinds…..

  1. Enhancing skills and competence of the work forces involved in the economics of enterprise.
  2. Preserving the beneficial aspects of farmers and artisans.
  3. Ensuring social security of farmers and artisans through promotional schemes of insurance and calamity benefits.
  4. Easy as well as ensured access of farmers and artisans to the basic amenities like food, medication, shelter etc.
  5. Establishing and strengthening Industrial Training Centers of rural out pockets.

            Several other initiatives may be enlisted for ensuring the promotion of the functioning of the enterprise through prominent actors like farmers and artisans. For the adequate functioning of the entire society it will ensure the timely and adequate scope of communications. There are several means of communications functioning in the society. Some more can be added for ensuring two way communication between land and laboratory, between patients and doctor, between students and teacher and so on.

Networked Communications

            Formation of community, close user group and other such economic entity was a part of economic planning proposed by Kumarappa. He had maintained his adequate faith upon the relevance of collective efforts made by a community toward attainment of success and refinement. For accomplishing the same task there requires regular interaction between members of the close user groups of an economic entity.

            We often communicate with others for various reasons. Reasons may vary from individual level up to the level of the entire society. It may be for some individual gain or may be for the gain of the entire community. Without interacting with other individual a life process, or problems related to the life process may remain un-attended. It may lead toward a chaos of the demand and supply mechanism. A doctor, for instance, may remain unexplored without the approach of fellow patients. Similar the case in between communications of students and teachers, advocates and clients, shop keepers and customers etc. Communication is therefore an essential part of the human society through which different entities of a society come closure to each other. It even make the social functioning appropriate as well as time tested. A farmer can communicate the entity of the immediate requirement for sorting out any problem. Reliance upon mass communication media will ensure a definite progress in time. Communication even bring people together for raising their voice jointly upon any issue. Proper and timely communication even ensure the birth of a nuclear family in the society. Access to information will raise the level of the community consciousness that in turn will increase the levels of the understanding of people.

Social Standards

                        Public recognition of any individual indicates the importance of the person in society. Doctors and teachers generally receive higher recognition because of the importance of their services duly acknowledged by a large segment of society. Services of farmers and artisans are equally important in our society because of their involvement in the productivity system. A conscious society can recognise the importance of the members involved in the economy of enterprises. Only conscious members of a family can think about the well beings of a farmer so as to safeguard the productivity process. Such consciousness of people  will ensure the social security of the members involved in the economy of enterprises. A life process in society, therefore, must not be standardised simply in terms of dress and wealth. It may be standerdised properly in terms of efforts and knowledge. Efforts and knowledge are the two important wheels of the collective progress of a society. Standard of living of the rural society may be enhanced by ensuring some of the basic facilities like sanitation, housing, medication, and access to education, access to information etc. For enhanced efforts an expanded Knowledge base will play a definitive role in making a society developed and sustained one.

            Kumarappa placed an argument to replace the standardisation of life in terms of simplicity and complexity. He has considered the life of Mahatma Gandhi a simple one and that of English fellow a complicated one. A complicated life implies adequate demand for the maintenance of the very self. On the other hand, a simple life of a villager manages to live within minimum without imposing adequate claim upon the economic system. In that way the standardisation of the life in terms of simplicity can place Gandhi and other such person of simple living at a highest standard. Such kind of standardisation of life made by Kumarappa was a unique one.

Strategic Industrialisation

            Kumarappa maintained his perpetual stand regarding the role of government and public enterprises toward making the entire economic process a prosperous one. In one of his policy intervention, Kumarappa has mentioned clearly that government should own and maintain large industries. Small and village industries should be kept free for small enterprises and individual artisans. Large industries like railway, steel, refineries etc. should be kept under the regulation of public enterprises. Small enterprises should receive adequate state support at various instances. Only safeguarding the entire system by proposing and amending some judiciary sanctions is not the desirable stand of government. Government should take a concrete stand even in safeguarding the market for small and marginalized farmers and artisans. Enhancement of quality of production and yield another such intervention that skill development council should work upon.

            Kumarappa had served on the Economic Programme Committee appointed in November 1947 by the A.I.C.C. and chaired by Nehru to indicate the broad guidelines for the economy. Its report was submitted in January 1948 and presented a diluted version of Gandhi’s and Kumarappa’s views on a largely decentralised and village industries based economy. This report was later in the year adopted by the government as its Industrial Policy Statement.  In February 1948, the Congress appointed an Agrarian Reforms Committee, which was headed by Kumarappa. Its report submitted in July 1949 recommended land reforms, no private ownership of land and many other radical measures for restructuring land relations and land use. The recommendations of this Committee were kept aside, without addressing it even on a pilot basis, by the government, and Kumarappa went about setting up Pannai Ashram in Seldoh village near Wardha with the idea of undertaking a model implementation of the recommendations made in the Report. In this he was joined by Mira Behn and some other Sarvodaya workers.

            Adequate faith upon husbandry[10] practices duly maintained by the gandhian economist. He has considered husbandry practices as an entity having double benefit. Besides consuming a bulk of organic waste materials and converting it into milk, it also provides bio fuels, manure and medication for the community. If cow is becoming the part of the economy, then the husbandry animal should be protected by law.

Post Independent Turmoil

            In 1952, he founded along with Gora (Goparaju Ramachandra Rao), an atheist rural social worker from Andhra Pradesh, an organisation, Arthik Samata Mandal (Society for Economic Equality), which was in favour of redistribution of land by means of non-violent pressure on the landlords by the landless, and of Swadeshi as an economic policy. In addition, it propagated Gramraj, the concept of party-less democracy, the idea that local village councils could and should work without political parties and organised ‘Food for All’ campaigns. By 1955 Kumarappa’s health was in so poor a condition that he had to give up his work at Pannai Ashram. From the Gandhi Niketan Ashram in T. Kallupatti near Madurai Kumarappa started a training institute in village crafts and cottage industries. He also continued to write on various national issues, particularly on the Community Development Programme of the government being undertaken with American aid and expertise, and on the Bhoodan movement initiated by Shri Vinoba Bhave. He took a dim view of both as not helping to really solve the agrarian issues of the country. Healing patches of wounds cannot guarantee the complete revival of the entire system of socio-economic practices. He was maintaining his view that government should own land and the same should be allocated to fellow farmers as per their individual capabilities and aspirations for promoting planned agriculture. Moreover, adequate financial support should be provided to farmers for promoting the formation of the working capital. Small holders should receive adequate safeguard of the state. The kind of land reform was not accepted by the government. Not only had that political parties maintained their view regarding the infliction of the voice of Kumarappa with those of communist leaders.

Immediate Intervention      

            Kumarappa raised question regarding the role of government and fellow Gandhians in accomplishing the dream of the rural industrialization of Mahatma.[11] He claimed that real tribute to Mahatma Gandhi will be in the form of imparting fellow farmers and artisans in the national economic activities. Promoting and safeguarding village industries is the only way out. Skills needed for regulating the cycle of production or processing of certain item is the foremost factor that can bring forth the initiation of the required economic process. Understanding the productivity and processing cycle, collecting the aspiration of people, taking notes on the choice factor of users, preparing the probable productivity cycle, guessing the quantum of efforts required for making the production and processing cycle a reality are some of the pre-requisites which will expose the Artisan or Service Provider to a process oriented management framework.  Such kind of process orientation even considers probable risk factors that might put a setback in bringing out the success.

            Skill of managing the entire situation especially during time of conflict and unrest is the second accomplishable quality that can maintain the pulse of productivity and processing. When to speed up the process and when to slow it down is the subject of the analysis of Demand- Supply Chain. A skillful aspirant can guess the stress of Demand – Supply chain and accordingly issue a needful guidance for people involved in operating the production and processing chain. It will be more perpetual to ascribe a system of production and processing toward bringing out a desirable result in appropriate time span.

Balance of Demand and Supply

            Getting involved in production and processing only after assessment of the demand of the similar kind of products or process in the surrounding is advisable for attaining success. It is the system which can determine the financial involvement of the Artisan and Service Provider that often work in keeping the entire stream of demand and supply alive. It can even mark out the complete process of the flow of finance through different phases of the productivity and processing cycle. If any supply chain is switched on through the delivery of products or services, that chain remain active on the basis of the competitive quality as well as availing the service in time. Both quality and availability factor will determine the confluence of demand and supply up to a considerable mark. Multiple of such chain can bring an increase in the service line up of the productivity and processing cycle.

 

Need of a Close Vigil

                     It is usually said that, “Danger often comes from the safest side.” That means alertness will be of no ease. Anytime and from any of the components of production and processing cycle the hidden threat of danger might mount on the entire system and make it a halt. It is, therefore, advisable that we should keep on watching the entire system for attaining assurance of the safety at all possible levels. Keeping a chance is not advisable at any instance because of the falsehood of such initiative. One cannot rely upon any loosely monitored system of production and processing cycle.

                           Owner worker conflict is another possible reason of advent of threat to a healthy system. It can be handled by designing a system of maintaining commitment to the credential of the entire implements. Commitment of owner should be maintained properly at all instances of production and processing cycle. Wage rate should be of a compatible range as per that of the immediate market. More perpetual system can make the effort a participatory one for bringing out success alongside keeping the aspirations of workers at higher pitch. We even guess a chance of attaining success through ensuring whole hearted involvement of fellow workers in the productivity cycle.

Chandan Sukumar Sengupta

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Notes and References..



[1] Kumarappa was a strict disciplinarian. In Bihar he laid down that three annas would be allowed as the maximum food expense to a relief worker per day. A common kitchen was organised and managed within the prescribed limit.

He made similar rules for the use of motor cars. Once, Gandhi came to Patna to attend a committee meeting of the Relief Fund. His retinue was accustomed to food articles like milk, fruits and vegetables. This went beyond the three anna limit. Kumarappa explained to Mahadevbhai his difficulty in paying these expenses out of the Relief Funds. He also told Mahadev Desai that it will be helpful, if he could make arrangements on his own to get petrol for Gandhi’s motor car. The matter reached Gandhi’s ears. He called Kumarappa and said that he had come exclusively for the committee’s work and wanted to know the grounds on which he refused meeting with his bills. Kumarappa explained the austerity rules he had made to maintain uniformity in spending money obtained as donation from the people and was not in favour of making exceptions. Gandhi got his point. He asked Mahadevbhai not to present the bills to the committee.

Source: http://www.mkgandhi.org/associates/jck.htm

[2] The name Kumarappa was coined by Mahatma Gandhi for Joseph Chelladurai for making him more people friendly.

[3] Indian agriculture is currently passing through a period of severe crisis. Although some features of the crisis started manifesting themselves in certain parts of India during the late 1980s, the crisis has assumed a serious dimension since the middle of the 1990s. One of the tragic manifestations of the crisis is the large number of suicides committed by the farmers in some parts of India.(EGAI, 2007, p13).

[4] The Constitution of India (1950) lays down the distribution of legislative (and policy making) powers of the centre states into three lists: Union list consisting of areas in which the parliament (and central government) have exclusion powers, a state list of areas in which the state legislature (and state governments) have exclusive authority and a concurrent list of areas in which both the parliament (central government) and the state legislatures (and state governments) have power with the important premise that Union law will prevail over state law. However, with the appointment of an extra constitutional body, namely the Planning Commission in March, 1950 through a resolution of the Central Cabinet soon after the adoption of the Constitution in January, 1950 and the institution of five-year plans formulated by the Planning Commission for articulating a national development strategy, the constitution assignment of powers vastly expanded the powers of the centre. The Finance Commission, a constitutional mandated body, in its report in 1973 remarked “A national plan has necessarily to comprehend the entire range of developmental activities, cutting across the delimitation of powers between Centre and the states. In this process, the Government of India and the Planning Commission have acquired a voice even in matters recognized to be within the Jurisdiction of the States.” (cited in National Commission on Agriculture (1976), Part II, p. 95).  In the three decades and more since the report, the powers of the central government have expanded further

[5] Gram Udyog Patrika was published by Gram Udyog Sangh for publishing economic articles. It also covered Economic conditions of India. This Patrika remained in frontline from 1918 to 1948.

[6] The concept titled Economy of Permanence came into existence focusing a correlation between different economy of nature and of human society. Refer: Economy of Permanence; Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Rajghat, Varanasi 221001, 1984, pages: 208 and Economy of Permanence Part II; Maganwadi, Wardha; 1948, pages: 87.

 

[7] The Latin root of congregation, which is greg, meaning “flock,” easily becomes congregare, meaning “to gather together,” and finally congregationen, giving the current meaning of “a group.” The meaning took on a religious quality when 16th Century Protestants took it to refer to the church itself, then refining it to mean church members. If you’re not a churchgoer, you might still refer to your friends who show up to watch football as a congregation.  A congregation is a large gathering of people, often for the purpose of worship.

The term congregation may refer to:

  • Local church, a Christian organization meeting in a particular place for worship
  • Congregation (Roman Curia), an administrative body of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Congregation (Catholic), a grouping of religious institutes or a religious institute in which only simple vows, not solemn vows, are taken
  • Congregation (Jewish), known in Hebrew as a kehilla
  • Qahal, an Israelite organizational structure often translated as congregation
  • Congregation, often used as an alternate term for a synagogue or its members in a similar vein as a Christian congregation
  • Congregation (university), an assembly of senior members of a university
  • The general audience in a ward in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

 

[8] A child never pay any return in cash or kind for the service of the mother that was performed during the entire period of the parental care. It will tie up a social and humanitarian bond through which the grown up child may become careful for the mother. The kind of effort thus indicate the vibrant nature of the society. These and some other human activities are perfectly regulated by the Free Will of an individual. Refer: Economy of Permanence; Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Rajghat, Varanasi 221001, 1984.

[9] The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by recognizing and responding to antigens. Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria. Nonliving substances such as toxins, chemicals, drugs, and foreign particles (such as a splinter) can also be antigens. The immune system recognizes and destroys, or tries to destroy, substances that contain antigens.

[10] The Cow Conference, held at Amritsar, in 1946 laid great stress on the place the cow holds in our rural economy. Apart from the programme for the preservation of the cow, as an animal, we have also to consider the steps to be taken to build up the economy symbolised by the cow. We cannot take up isolated items and concentrate on those without consolidating village life on all fronts.
From this broader approach any encouragement given to the cultivation of long staple cotton for mills is tantamount to the destruction of the cow as the seeds of long staple cotton are not available as cattle feed because of the fuzzy short staple cotton being left aligned on the seed. Owing to this the bullocks are deprived of their oil & protein diet. Our villages are dependent on animals for the satisfactory working of their economy.

[11] J. C. Kumarappa was invited for a public meeting on the evening of 30th January, the day of Gandhi’s martyrdom. But he replied that in the 12 years since Gandhi’s departure there had not been even an inch of progress in the country along Gandhian lines, so “How do we deserve praying for him on that day?” This thought, that we have not proved ourselves worthy disciples of the 20th century apostle of peace, seems to have weighed him down so much on that day that he passed away on the night of 30th January.

 

 

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